Thus, to date, no comprehensive international compositional standards have been set for coconut water or for the methods of its production and preservation for retail sale worldwide. Overall the AIJN sets a greater number of guideline parameters than the other standards cited above and although numerical values differ they are generally within the same order of magnitudes. A LOD of added sugars of 1.3% was achieved (45 samples) and the chemical shift and line-shape of the malic acid signal appeared to be diagnostic for exogenous sugar mixtures (46). There are three varieties: Tall (C. nucifera var. Ounce per ounce, most unflavored coconut water contains 5.45 calories, 1.3 grams of sugar, 61 milligrams of potassium, and 5.45 milligrams of sodium. The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) has been working on a reference guideline for coconut water. A FAO guide is available on good practice for the small-scale production of bottled coconut water in coconut growing areas (22). Natural coconut water that has been harvested straight from the nut is the best choice. The Queen’s University of Belfast, Institute for Global Food Security. The content of macro and micronutrients found in tender coconut water can lower lipids, protect the heart and liver 17, 18 . South America and Asia reportedly accounted for over 90% of world consumption to 2018 (6). The authors are grateful to Julia Glotz (Former Managing Editor “THE GROCER” and now a freelance writer & editor based in London) for drawing our attention to the authenticity of coconut water. Brazilian law permits up to 1% added sugar in coconut water. TCW is the most nutritious healthy drink from a palm tree, is a natural isotonic drink that has content similar to our body's blood plasma 11 . Although even here care is needed as data as high as –21.3‰ have been reported for authentic coconut water from Thailand (58). Units: g/100 mL and g/100 g assumed to be equivalent. Posted June 1st, … A weight of evidence approach should be taken to assess coconut water authenticity bearing in mind the above conclusions. Depending on soil conditions, coconut water ranges from very sweet to neutral to even slightly acidic in taste. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Coconut water can be distinguished from fruit juices and many soft drinks by its appearance (including turbidity), organoleptic qualities, lower soluble solids (°Brix), sugars profile, higher pH and lower acidity (Table 1 and Figure 1), taking due account of its potassium, L-malic and citric acid contents. There are only a … Further analytical investigations might involve Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy albeit access to chemometrics and a suitable database of authentic and non-authentic spectra will be necessary. European sales of coconut water seem likely to increase from a low baseline. showed good correlation between the data obtained by NMR, FTIR and GC-MS in a quality prediction study on the effects of L-ascorbic acid addition to micro-filtered coconut water (44). Three alerts were for additives (sulfites or benzoic acid), one for inadequate thermal processing and three for milk protein allergens. Uses . Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ. It has fewer calories, less sodium, and more potassium than a sports drink. We are grateful to Fiona Palmer for sight of the relevant section of the European Fruit Juice Association Reference Guideline for Coconut Water and to Philip Dunn for helpful comments on SIRMS. As with fruit juices, coconut water contains significant concentrations of potassium (mean K = 2019 mg/kg, r = 338–3080 mg/kg, n = 31 from nine studies) (1). Assumed to be 12 months old; data adapted from (1, 14, 16). Activated charcoal can be made from the shell (endocarp). English Edition. I… Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Due to the lability of fresh tender coconut water, commercial coconut water products are stabilized blends of a variety of waters to achieve products of wide acceptability of taste and odour. The Codex Alimentarius standard for “aqueous coconut products” (35) refers only to coconut milk and coconut cream. We are grateful to reviewers for helpful comments that have improved the paper. I am just guessing that I could get a lot of opinions here about vaccinations and fluoridated water, too. Coconut Water Provides Hydration. Most commercial products are blends of coconut water from various undeclared sources including amounts of fragrant varieties (7) and in many cases without a statement about added sugar or other additives (18). Screening for milk protein should be considered albeit evidence for its inclusion in coconut water is sparse. Freshly extracted coconut water is not stable. A “natural taste and flavor” was required with no artificial colors and flavorings but nisin was permitted as a preservative. The guideline emphasizes that a valid conclusion regarding the authenticity of a particular sample can only be reached after expert interpretation of all the analytical data. C. nucifera is a monotypic member of the Arecaceae family. It has only a third of the sodium—30 mg per 8 ounces—that traditional sports drinks contain. Coconut water is a relatively low-calorie drink with far less sugar compared to many soft or fizzy drinks. The brand remained a laggard behind Vita Coco even as U.S. coconut water sales fell 22% to $528 million in 2019 from 2015, the Journal reported — citing data from Euromonitor International. A scientific review of coconut water, published in the journal Molecules, highlights some of the ways that coconut water replenishes your body: Helps to prevent heart attacks However, one issue here is that the levels of the three main sugars in coconut water (sucrose, glucose and fructose) are inherently variable and the predictive ability of Raman and 1H NMR with chemometrics applied to commercial samples may be more problematic than the limited experimental data might suggest. Plant Physiol. Subsequent analysis of 24 coconut waters on the (presumably Austrian) retail market implied 38% contained undeclared exogenous C4 sugars. The enzymes responsible cause enrichment of 13C to different extents, providing a means to differentiate C3 plant products such as coconut water from C4 plant products, such as cane sugar and maize derived syrups (49–51). Coconut water is composed of important sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and phytohormones (plant hormones that control their growth and development). Indonesia has the world’s largest production, followed by the Philippines and India. Providing 79 kilojoules (19 kilocalories) of food energy in a 100-millilitre (3 1 ⁄ 2-US-fluid-ounce) amount, coconut water is 95% water and 4% carbohydrates, with protein and total fat content under 1% each (table). The sulfite bound to organic compounds is released by addition of sodium hydroxide prior to generation of sulfur dioxide. To learn more, view our, The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut Water, The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water, Coconut water uses, composition and properties: a review, Therapeutic and Nutritional Values of Narikelodaka (Tender Coconut Water) - A Review. It was possible to detect added single sugars with limits of detection (LOD) in the range 1.9–2.6%, detection of added mixtures of sugars and HFCS were more difficult, (total samples examined = 155). (, Imaizumi V.M., Sartori M.M.P., Ducatti C., Venturini Filho W.G. This practically sterile liquid which is prized for its delicate, albeit labile, flavor when fresh, has had a recent dramatic increase in global demand. Coconut water from seven young (6–9 month) Costa Rican coconuts was pasteurized, diluted and sugars added singly (glucose, fructose, sucrose), in mixtures or as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The drupe envelope (mesocarp or husk), is extensively marketed after processing as rope, carpets, geotextiles and growing media (1). Only seven RASFF (34) notifications for coconut water were found in a search of the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Portal for relevant entries between August 2011 and June 2019, see Table 2, among a much larger number for other coconut products. Coconut water is what is inside a young coconut. The predominant type is lauric acid (47%), with myristic and palmitic acids present in smaller amounts, which have been shown in research to raise harmful LDL levels. (, Pereira E.P.R., Faria J.A.F., Pinto U.M. Dec 24, 2020 (Heraldkeepers) -- Coconut water benefits and … Some differentiation between coconut water with optimum taste from young fruits and that from more mature fruits may be attempted from the same parameters, and from sorbitol concentration. View abstract. Raman, FTIR or 1H NMR spectroscopy with chemometrics have been applied to investigate coconut water authenticity. A draft standard was then produced for packaged natural coconut water (41). High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) treatment was found to produce microbial stability and preserve the nutritional and sensory attributes of coconut water (29). Coconut water is the clear, colorless liquid extracted, without expressing the coconut meat, directly from the inner part of the coconut fruit. Check price at AmazonHarmless Harvest has one of the most-lauded coconut water products on the market thanks to its simple formulation, high quality, and organic certification. (15) and Tan et al. (5), the three most popular cultivars worldwide in 2011 were West African Tall, Malaysian Yellow Dwarf and “PB121” Hybrid. Any view, information or advice given should not be taken as an authoritative statement or interpretation of the law, as this is a matter for the courts. This review summarizes the health benefits of Tender Coconut Water (TCW). Over the years with a rise in lactose intolerance and veganism, coconuts have been enjoying quite the attention for being a healthy source of water, milk, cream, sugar, vinegar, and flour. The variation in composition under different thermal processing conditions, with and without the addition of sulfite, was studied by Sucupira et al. Bold draws attention to data which may help to distinguish young from mature coconut water. Although there were statistically significant differences between cultivars, the specific cultivars would not be known in detail by the ultimate consumers when purchasing retailed products. The standard deviation of these data was usually small. Naturally refreshing, coconut water has a sweet, nutty taste. Over the past two decades coconut water has been used extensively as a treatment for cholera, dysentery, influenza, and other infectious Coconut water is not only a tropical beverage but also a traditional medicine [1], P7 Volume 2, Issue 2, April-June 2014 Journal of Current Trends in Clinical Medicine & Laboratory Biochemistry a microbiological growth medium [2] and a one of the most … Regular intake of coconut water can relieve hypertension. (1) reported that the variation in total sugars in water from mature coconuts, from various varieties and origin, was in the range of 1.8–4.4 g/100 mL. The use of pesticides appears essential to the productivity and preservation of coconut palms. A straw was included and used for puncturing the coconut at the time of consumption ().Recommended storage was at 4°C–5°C in the refrigerator, but the coconut had been kept on the kitchen table for 1 month after purchase. Although there is no apparent commercial incentive for the addition of cow’s milk as such or as skimmed milk powder, several RASFF notifications arose for milk proteins in coconut water. Stated 8–9 months (10), mean of three varieties, Dwarf, Tall and Hybrid, the standard deviations of the data were small. Coconut water is a natural beverage that is refreshing and enjoyed throughout the world. Abstract Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world’s most versatile natural product. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017;27:279-284. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. (, Jackson J.C., Gordon A., Wizzard G., McCook K., Rolle R. (, Tan T.-C., Cheng L.-H., Bhat R., Rusul G., Easa A.M. (, Directive 2001/112/EC of 20 December 2001 on fruit juices and similar products, OJ L 010, 12.1.2002, 58, consolidated version of 05.10.2014, Annex V, Harold R.S.K., Sawyer R. Formol value: an approximate measure of the concentration of free amino acids, see for example Egan (, Purkayastha M.D., Kalita D., Mahnot N.K., Mahanta C.L., Mandal M., Chaudhuri M.K. Hence although it is in our opinion more likely to be a risk of occurring in coconut milk, analysts should remain alert to the possibility and consider screening for milk protein, e.g., by ELISA (61). It is also probably worth checking the concentrations of malic and citric acids, as the former is the major organic acid of coconut water and high levels of citric acid indicates an addition (58). The authors concluded that Raman spectroscopy has potential as a rapid accurate analytical method for the detection of adulteration in this product, with the ability to discern small abnormalities in sugar ratios within coconut water (45). In recent UK surveillance of imported products described as coconut water 60% (7 of 12 samples) were found to contain added sugar albeit the sample size was small, and some of the implicated brand owners questioned the analytical procedure (13). (53) applied carbon SIRMS to detect coconut water adulteration in Brazil. This is represented by total soluble solids (°Brix). The RASFF does not record authenticity issues. The unexpected and unlabelled presence of a major allergen such as milk is a risk to persons with milk allergy (60) and a potential offence under food labelling law. The FAO good practice guidelines mentioned above (22) for the application of “middle-level” technology, for the small-scale production of chilled bottled coconut water in St. Vincent and Jamaica gave physicochemical characteristics of pH (5–5.4) and Brix (5–6.5). So coconut water is a type of juice. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC), Queen’s Road, Food Forensics: Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and origin. (, Farquhar G.D., Ehleringer J.R., Hubick K.T. Each variety exhibits diverging characteristics including fragrance (7). Cross breeding of these varieties has resulted in numerous cultivars. Advice is provided for official food analysts, and others, on prudent approaches as how to ascertain the authenticity and potability, or otherwise, of coconut water samples. (16) (among others). The composition of raw coconut water is determined by a range of factors including growing region, which influences soil, environmental conditions and fertilizer application, variety and cultivar, and the stage of maturity at harvesting. Search criterion “coconut,” searched on 15th June 2019, search date range between 01 August 2011 and 15th June 2019. Coconut water is practically sterile in the coconut and is widely consumed as a drink, prized for its delicate, albeit labile, flavor when fresh. It contains easily digested carbohydrates in the form of sugar and electrolytes. (, Ferreira J.A., Ferreira J.M.S., Talamini V., de Fátima Facco J., Rizzetti T.M., Prestes O.D., Adaime M.B., Zanella R., Bottoli C.B.G. The sugar concentrations in coconut water. TCW is a natural, healthy, nutritious drink from coconut tree widely grown in tropical countries. (, Sucupira N.R., Wurlitzer N.J., Dionisio A.P., de Abreul F.A.P., de Sousa P.H.M. (This is not to be confused with coconut milk, which is, well, milky in color and made by grinding and squeezing the flesh of a much older coconut.) It is not usually prudent to regard a sample as adulterated when only some parameters do not fall within the values quoted in the second AIJN section. Coconut water is a liquid that is drained from the center of coconuts and then packaged and sold in stores. [17]. Of the 17 brands examined, 11 (65%) appeared to contain exogenous sugars (53). The coconut fruit (strictly, a drupe) is well known and Cocos nucifera L., is regarded as an important and much-grown crop globally. A provisional guideline was developed in 2017 and was adopted as a “full” guide in 2019. The same research group applied 1H NMR and chemometrics to the problem of adulteration of coconut water with water–sugar mixtures. Prades A., Dornier M., Diop N., Pain J.-P. (, Campbell-Falck D., Thomas T., Falck T.M., Tutuo N., Clem K. (, Konan B.R., Konan J.L., Tetchi F., Assa R.R., Amani G. (, Centre for the Promotion of Imports (CBI) Netherlands Enterprise Agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (, Prades A., Assa R.R.A., Dornier M., Pain J.-P., Boulanger R. (, Kailaku S.I., Syah A.N.A., Risfaheri R., Setiawan B., Sulaeman A. The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. Coconut water does not improve markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and performance in a subsequent time trial compared with water alone. Coconut water (CW) is a slightly sweet liquid with a subtle, nutty flavor obtained from the endosperm of coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. The coconut water exhibited carbon isotope ratios between –26.40 and –23.76%. Unlike other juices, unflavored coconut water is … The volume of coconut water per nut and its composition were studied by Jackson et al. Summary of draft standards for coconut water. The sugars data exhibit some variability, as would be expected for natural products; however, they distinguish coconut water from fruit juices in general which must meet minimum Brix levels (typically 7–11.2% with some exceptions) (19). Table 1 collates data for sugars from a number of authors (1, 10, 14, 16), who collected data from 14 papers published mainly in the 20th century. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS) analysis is a powerful authentication approach widely applied for authenticity and geographic origin investigations (48). Coconut water does not improve markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and performance in a subsequent time trial compared with water alone. (, Richardson P.I., Muhamadali H., Ellis D.I., Goodacre R. (, Richardson P.I., Muhamadali H., Lei Y., Golovanov A.P., Ellis D.I., Goodacre R. (, Oliveira M.L., Brandao G.C., de Andrade J.B., Ferreira S.L.C. Also present in trace amounts are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. It is sometimes referred to as “coconut juice” (e.g., in the Codex Alimentarius standard, see below) and, erroneously, as coconut milk which is a white liquid made from the grated fresh kernel (1). Turbidity, which tends to increase with maturity, may also serve as a visual screening mechanism (young coconut water should be visually clear) and pH data in the above studies may also assist. Subscribe Sign In. Sabapathy and Bawa in 2007 (40) noted that “mature” and “tender” coconut water contained 0.2 and 4.4% reducing sugars, respectively, and proposed minimum product quality requirements for preserved “tender” coconut water. In 2016 some 45% of the UK supply of coconut water originated in Thailand (11). Richardson et al. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. In addition, coconut water does contain potassium. More advanced approaches have been proposed including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR in combination with chemometrics or GC-MS. Purkayastha et al. Coconut water contains a unique combination of B vitamins, vitamin C, micronutrients, and phytohormones that are exceptionally beneficial to your health. EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifications. The genetics of the coconut have been extensively studied (see for example (54)). These guidelines form part of the AIJN Code of Practice, which is available to subscribers only. This alone puts it well ahead of much of the competition, as you can be assured that it is free of pesticides and fertilizers. The volume was found to be maximal in coconuts aged 6–9 months. Coconut water is regarded as a juice and is subject to the general provisions of the Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars (36), which sets general compositional, labelling and purity, including food additives, requirements. Rev. Data is presented on the variances in natural composition, maturity, processing-induced compositional changes, adulterations, product recalls, classical and instrumental methods of analysis and on the available composition standards of coconut water. As the coconut matures, the liquid contains a bit more sugar and gets mostly absorbed into the meat of the coconut.Juvenile (also called tender coconut water) contains more anti-oxidants than mature coconut water. (, Donarski J., Camin F., Fauhl-Hassek C., Posey R., Sudnik M. (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. European law (37) (which should be consulted for general authenticity, purity and labelling requirements) on fruit juices and similar products also applies to coconut water. Imaizumi et al. This gives it a firm texture at cold or room temperatures. The concentrations of free and total sulfur (IV) compounds in coconut water have been determined using high resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. The parameters are listed under two sections, one containing parameters that characterize absolute quality requirements and a second section relevant to the evaluation of identity and authenticity. Frozen strawberries are puréed in a blender with coconut cream, honey and rose water. Although water from immature coconuts is regarded as the best for human consumption, large volumes of mature coconut water are available as a waste product from copra and coconut milk/cream production (5, 6, 17). However, no explicit compositional criteria are given therein. However, access to appropriate chemometric techniques is required and current published databases of authentic and non-authentic spectra do not appear to be large enough and unlikely to have had due regard to the latest recommended composition guidelines (62). What Coconut Water Doesn’t Have Coconut water falls short when it comes to sodium content. (45) described Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics to assess potential adulteration of fresh coconut water by added sugars to conceal aqueous dilution. The coconut fruit alone is a powerhouse of nutrients with a fleshy white part which can also be the source of milk and the refreshing coconut water. Coconut oil proponents point to studies of indigenous populations in parts of India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Polynesia, whose diets include copious amounts of coconut. (, Psomiadis D., Zisi N., Koger C., Horvath B., Bodiselitsch B. The AIJN reference guideline seeks to define acceptability criteria for coconut “water”/coconut juice. The benefits of coconut water after a workout may just … The variations in volume and composition with variety and nut maturity have important influences on the trade in coconut water products. Coconuts grow on large palm trees known scientifically as Cocos … According to Konan et al. Thus following a check for appearance (lack of appreciable turbidity), organoleptic acceptability and sterility, further investigation of samples should focus on conformity of labelling with regard to absence or otherwise of added sugar, the presence of any preservative and other additives, pesticides and heavy metals. Coconut water (n = 13 locations, 17 different brands) and cane sugar were analyzed by elemental analysis-SIRMS. Though an essential part of a healthy diet, regular water can get … It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. The various processing methods and use of additives affect the chemical composition and the organoleptic properties of products. Coconut water is not water with coconut flavor added. Although it is tempting to suggest the lower data arise from a decimal point error equally divergent sodium data are seen elsewhere (15) (Na 15.5–1050 mg/kg) hence the most that can be said is that coconut water sodium ion concentrations are highly variable. These three countries were reported in 2018 to account for some 78% of global coconut production, with 12 other countries making up the remaining 22% (8). Sulfite addition and processing to 136°C were effective to prevent pinking and maintain the levels of the main organic compounds. Rehydrates As Effectively As Sports Drinks. (52) applied this technique to coconut water including additional LC to separate individual sugars prior to SIRMS, finding the latter to improve the LOD for added C4 sugars. [16] (a,b & c are different cultvars) and Tan et al. (2017) Coconut Genetic Diversity, Conservation and Utilization. In: Ahuja M., Jain S. (eds) Biodiversity and Conservation of Woody Plants, Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 17. It's the clear fluid inside the coconut, not to be confused with coconut milk, which is an emulsion of coconut water and fresh grated coconut. The CW is low in calories and fat. A scientific review published in the Molecules journal showed benefits ranging from lowering high blood pressure, preventing heart attacks, and healing cancer. Coconut Water for Diabetics. Good Source of Several Nutrients. Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are entirely those of the authors. Suspicions formed by these data should be further investigated by documentary and audit checks. Coconut water extraction, formulation, processing and storage can also affect the flavour. When faced with these shortages, physicians have had to improvise with the available resources, or simply do without. A variety of processing methods are available for the production of stable products. Coconut water has attracted religious symbolism in Asia, has reputed health benefits, contains phytohormones (auxin, cytokinins and gibberellins), has been investigated as a growth medium, and as biocatalyst for microorganisms and plants (1, 2). It is sometimes referred to as “coconut juice” (e.g., in the Codex Alimentarius standard, see below) and, erroneously, as coconut milk which is a white liquid made from the grated fresh kernel ( 1 ). Psomiadis et al. 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